The Arctic Ocean Review Project. PHASE II REPORT 2011-2013. (v. 16 October 2012).
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME)
The Arctic Ocean Review (AOR) Project is anchored in a mandate from the Arctic Council ministers to the PAME working group to review on a regular basis the legal and regulatory instruments relevant to the Arctic Ocean. The overall goal of the AOR project is to provide guidance to the Arctic Council Ministers as a means to strengthen governance and to achieve desired environmental, economic and socio-cultural outcomes in the Arctic through a cooperative, coordinated and integrated approach to the management of the Arctic marine environment. Thus, the objectives of the AOR Project include reviewing the status and adequacy of applicable international and regional commitments, agreements and standards and making recommendations that, inter alia, promote their implementation and compliance. The AOR is not intended to evaluate implementation by individual countries of existing instruments. The AOR Phase I report identified international and regional instruments relevant to the management of the Arctic marine environment. A detailed analysis of each of the instruments identified in the AOR Phase I Report is beyond the scope of this Phase II Report. Rather, this Phase II Report, by agreement of the member states, focuses on three cross-cutting themes (Peoples and Cultures, Ecosystem Based Management and Arctic Marine Science) and four sectors (Arctic Marine Operations and Shipping, Living Marine Resources, Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas, and Arctic Marine Pollution). Arctic Marine tourism is discussed in the chapter on Arctic Marine Operations and Shipping. These cross-cutting and sectoral chapters analyze some, but all not, instruments to identify opportunities and tools that Arctic Council member states could use to strengthen governance for the conservation and sustainable use of the Arctic marine environment. Each chapter identifies opportunities for consideration of the Arctic Council. While numerous opportunities are identified, it is recognized that these do not necessarily constitute a comprehensive, all-inclusive list. Arctic Council member states, Permanent Participants and Observers may have differing views as to those opportunities which have been included and those which should be priorities.