Guidelines for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Arctic Marine Ecosystems
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME)
The concept of the Ecosystem Approach to management (EA) has been around for at least 30 years and has been extensively discussed, elaborated and developed within national and international fora. The Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a Guidance for the Ecosystem Approach in 2000 at its 5th Conference of the Parties (CBD COP V/6)1. The EA was adopted as an overarching principle and approach by Arctic Council Ministers in 2004 as part of the Arctic Marine Strategic Plan (AMSP). In 2011, the Ministers established an expert group on Arctic ecosystem-based management (EBM), which reviewed the EA (or EBM) concept2 and provided a definition of EA along with principles and recommendations that were adopted as part of the Kiruna Declaration in 2013. In Iqaluit in 2015, and in Fairbanks in 2017, the Arctic Council Ministers recognized the need for EA and requested and encouraged the development of practical guidelines for EA implementation in the Arctic.