Behaviour of oil and other hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spilled in Arctic waters (BoHaSA). 2nd DRAFT.
The objective of the BoHaSA (Behaviour of oil and other Hazardous Substances in Arctic waters) project is to gather and synthesize the current knowledge and expertise on the behaviour of oil and other hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) that might be released into Arctic waters as a result of an accident ship. The project aim is to promote the development and use of technologies and working methods that improve the capability to respond to accidents that involve such substances. The report is a state-of-the-art report based on a literature review of previous work including also main findings from recent R&D projects. The report discusses the risk of oil and HNS spills in the Arctic, the potential fate and behaviour of such spills and response methods available today. The main focus is on spills to the sea water related to transportation and exploration and production activities. Up to date there have been only a few oil spills in Arctic waters and no reported significant incidents involving HNS. With increasing petroleum activities (exploration, production and transport) and shipping the risk for future incidents will increase. Many areas in the Arctic are remote areas with poor infrastructure. Combined with low temperatures, darkness and the presence of ice parts of the year, responding to spills of oil or bulk HNS may be very challenging. Based on the response methods available today recommendations are given for further improvement of strategies and technologies to deal with oil spills and spills of HNS in the Arctic.