Economic Benefits, Social Advantages, and Emission Reductions: Bus fleet upgrade by Murmanskavtotrans

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Arctic Contaminants Action Program (ACAP)
Kholod, N.
Malyshev, V.
Evans, M.
Lipka, O.
Gusev, E.
ACAP , Black Carbon , diesel , economic benefits , social advantages , emission reductions , Murmanskavtotrans
Air pollution creates serious health, environmental and economic problems for urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants and also contributes to global climate change. Transportation powered by combustion engines is a major source of air pollution. Among the wide array of substances emitted into the atmosphere, black carbon (BC) is a major contributor to current warming, following carbon dioxide and methane. Diesel-powered vehicles are one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions. The main method of reducing BC emissions in this area is improving the environmental characteristics of the transportation fleet. This brochure documents the benefits of a bus fleet upgrade in Murmansk, Russia.