White Paper. Closing the Digital Abyss: Options for Arctic Telecom. Workshop Report to the Arctic Council Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Conference Akureyri, Iceland, October 2003.

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Hickel, Walter J.
"The purpose of the Circumpolar Infrastructure Task Force (CITF) workshop held in Anchorage, Alaska, September 3 - 5, 2003, was to evaluate the state of telecommunications infrastructure and service availability throughout the eight Arctic nations. Participants from the United States, Greenland, Russia and Norway discussed options for international cooperation to expand Arctic telecom capability and to focus on technical and “human” infrastructure. The group identified barriers within their own countries and collectively proposed solutions to bridge the digital divide. Most rural Arctic communities in the circumpolar region are underserved. The lack of basic services does not allow these regions to remain active and competitive in the global market. Service is often only available to rural areas if government subsidies are available." /.../