HFO IN THE ARCTIC HFO in the Arctic - Phase 2B.

This study is carried out on behalf of The Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment Working Group (PAME). PAME is one of six Arctic Council working groups and is the focal point of the Arctic Council's activities related to the protection and sustainable use of the Arctic marine environment. During execution of the project Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) in the Arctic – Phase 2, one of the membership states had objections regarding the geographical delimitation of the study (defined according to the according to the IMO Guideline the Arctic high seas). It was therefor agreed to perform an extension to the study including data from the areas in the Bering Sea south of 60 degrees. This is in line with the definition from the US Arctic Research and Policy Act (ARPA) as shown in Figure 1-1. Whereas the HFO in the Arctic – Phase 2 study is based on data from 1/1-2012 – 31/12-2012, the HFO-2B study is based on a newly established worldwide set spanning from August 2012 to August 2013. This additional study addresses the following issues:  Describe a full year (8/2012-8/2013) of maritime traffic based on satellite AIS recordings in the Bering Sea, including vessel composition (type and size), geographical distribution, sailed distances and operating hours throughout the year.  Identification of vessels operating on HFO and the carriage of oil cargo  Modelling of fuel consumption and emission to air  Hazard identification and a high-level risk analysis of frequencies of incidents leading to oil spill and the consequent likely oil spill (HFO, distillate fuel and oil cargo) The methodology, calculations and the assumptions made for this study are all identical to the HFO-Phase 2 projects. Hence, this report should be regarded as complementary to the Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) in the Arctic – Phase 2 (HFO-2) report.